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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 9: Schematic summarizing possible protective mechanisms of CIHH on vascular endothelium. CIHH could activate AMPK, inhibit mTOR, which leads to amelioration of autophagy and ER stress, then increase eNOS activity, and improve EDR in MS rats. Red arrow: Activation; green arrow: Inhibition. CIHH: Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia; AMPK: Adenosine mono-phosphate-activated protein kinase; mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin; ER stress: Endoplasmic reticulum stress; eNOS: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase.

Figure 9: Schematic summarizing possible protective mechanisms of CIHH on vascular endothelium. CIHH could activate AMPK, inhibit mTOR, which leads to amelioration of autophagy and ER stress, then increase eNOS activity, and improve EDR in MS rats. Red arrow: Activation; green arrow: Inhibition. CIHH: Chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia; AMPK: Adenosine mono-phosphate-activated protein kinase; mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin; ER stress: Endoplasmic reticulum stress; eNOS: Endothelial nitric oxide synthase.