Figure 5: Wood vinegar from Griffith's ash reduced the phosphorylation levels of PKCα and PKCδ in RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated with 1000 μg/mL of wood vinegar, followed by incubation with or without 1 μg/mL of LPS for 0–60 min. The phosphorylation levels of (a) PKCα, (b) PKCδ, and (c) PKCε in the cell lysates were assayed by western blotting. The data are presented as the mean ± SD from three independent experiments. * and *** indicate a significant difference at the level of P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively, compared to LPS alone. PKC: Protein kinase C, SD: Standard deviation, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide.