Figure 4: Wood vinegar from Griffith's ash inhibited pro-inflammatory mediators in RAW264.7 macrophages. RAW264.7 macrophages were treated for 30 min with 250, 500, or 1000 μg/mL of wood vinegar, followed by incubation with or without 1 μg/mL of LPS for 24 h. The lysates were assessed by western blotting analyses. The expression levels of COX-2 and iNOS in the cell lysates were measured by western blotting analyses (a-c). The levels of IL-6 (d) and TNF-α (e) in the culture media were determined by ELISA. Western blotting results are representative of three different experiments. ELISA data are presented as mean ± SD of three independent experiments. *P < 0.05 compared to LPS alone (n = 3). iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase, IL-6: Interleukin-6, TNF-α: Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, LPS: Lipopolysaccharide, SD: Standard deviation.