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  Indian J Med Microbiol
 

Figure 3: Cardiorespiratory coupling parameters at different stages in patients with asthma. (a) Time-domain analysis of heart rate variability. Upper panel: the average of the RR intervals. Lower panel: the standard deviation of the RR interval. (b) Frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability. Upper panel: normalized power of the low-frequency band and normalized power of the high-frequency band. Lower panel: the power ratio of the low-frequency band to the high-frequency band of heart rate variability and the reduced G-index. aP < 0.05 as Stage 2 to Stage 4 compared with the previous stage, and Stage 5 to Stage 8 compared with Stage 4. bP < 0.01 as Stage 2 to Stage 4 compared with the previous stage, and Stage 5 to Stage 8 compared with Stage 4. cP < 0.001 as Stage 2 to Stage 4 compared with the previous stage, and Stage 5 to Stage 8 compared with Stage 4.

Figure 3: Cardiorespiratory coupling parameters at different stages in patients with asthma. (a) Time-domain analysis of heart rate variability. Upper panel: the average of the RR intervals. Lower panel: the standard deviation of the RR interval. (b) Frequency-domain analysis of heart rate variability. Upper panel: normalized power of the low-frequency band and normalized power of the high-frequency band. Lower panel: the power ratio of the low-frequency band to the high-frequency band of heart rate variability and the reduced G-index. <sup>a</sup><i>P</i> < 0.05 as Stage 2 to Stage 4 compared with the previous stage, and Stage 5 to Stage 8 compared with Stage 4. <sup>b</sup><i>P</i> < 0.01 as Stage 2 to Stage 4 compared with the previous stage, and Stage 5 to Stage 8 compared with Stage 4. <sup>c</sup><i>P</i> < 0.001 as Stage 2 to Stage 4 compared with the previous stage, and Stage 5 to Stage 8 compared with Stage 4.