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   Table of Contents - Current issue
July-August 2023
Volume 66 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 189-293

Online since Tuesday, August 22, 2023

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Calycosin inhibits gemcitabine-resistant lung cancer cells proliferation through modulation of the LDOC1/GNL3L/NFκB p. 189
Chi-Cheng Li, Cheng-You Lu, Chiung-Hung Hsu, Dennis Jine-Yuan Hsieh, Tso-Fu Wang, Tsung-Jung Ho, Wei-Wen Kuo, Cecilia Hsuan Day, Shih-Chieh Liao, Ming-Cheng Chen, Chih-Yang Huang
Lung cancer is the most common malignant cancer worldwide. Combination therapies are urgently needed to increase patient survival. Calycosin is a phytoestrogen isoflavone that has been reported previously to inhibit tumor cell growth, although its effects on lung cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calycosin on cell proliferation and apoptosis of gemcitabine-resistant lung cancer cells. Using calycosin to treat human lung cancer cells (CL1-0) and gemcitabine-resistant lung cancer cells (CL1-0 GEMR) and examine the effects on the cells. Cultured human lung cancer cells (CL1-0) and gemcitabine-resistant lung cancer cells (CL1-0 GEMR) were treated with increasing concentrations of calycosin. Cell viability and apoptosis were studied by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide, flow cytometry, and TUNEL assays. Western blots were used to measure the expression levels of proliferation-related proteins and cancer stem cell proteins in CL1-0 GEMR cells. The results showed that calycosin treatment inhibited cell proliferation, decreased cell migration ability, and suppressed cancer stem cell properties in CL1-0 GEMR cells. Interestingly, in CL1-0 GEMR cells, calycosin treatment not only increased LDOC1 but also decreased GNL3L/NFκB protein levels and mRNA levels, in concentration-dependent manners. We speculate that calycosin inhibited cell proliferation of the gemcitabine-resistant cell line through regulating the LDOC1/GNL3L/NFκB pathway.
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miR-22-3p ameliorates the symptoms of premature ovarian failure in mice by inhibiting CMKLR1 expression p. 200
Miaomiao Pan
Premature ovarian failure (POF) affects many adult women less than 40 years of age and leads to infertility. This study was aimed at exploring the improving effects of miR-22-3p on the symptoms of POF in mice by inhibiting chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1) expression. Female mice were intraperitoneally injected with cyclophosphamide to construct POF mice models. Lentiviral vectors containing miR-22-3p, short hairpin RNA (sh)-CMKLR1, and overexpression (oe)-CMKLR1, respectively, or in combination, were injected into the ovaries of both sides of POF mice. miR-22-3p and CMKLR1 expression in ovarian tissues of mice was assessed, and the targeting relationship between miR-22-3p and CMKLR1 was predicted and verified. Serum estradiol (E2), anti-Mullerian hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels were assessed. Ovarian weight was weighed, and pathological changes and the number of primordial follicles, primary follicles, secondary follicles, and atresia follicles were observed. Apoptosis of ovarian tissues was determined. In ovarian tissues of POF mice, miR-22-3p expression was decreased while CMKLR1 expression was increased. miR-22-3p up-regulation or CMKLR1 down-regulation restored sex hormone levels, improved ovarian weight and the number of primordial follicles, primary follicles, and secondary follicles, and reduced the number of atresia follicle and ovarian granulosa cell apoptosis in POF mice. miR-22-3p targeted CMKLR1, and overexpressing CMKLR1 reversed the ameliorative effects of miR-22-3p overexpression on POF mice. Our research highlights that overexpressed miR-22-3p down-regulates CMKLR1 to ameliorate the symptoms of POF in mice. Therefore, the miR-22-3p/CMKLR1 axis could improve the symptoms of POF.
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Sericin improves memory and sociability impairments evoked by transient global cerebral ischemia through suppression of hippocampal oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis p. 209
Seyed Mehdi Vatandoust, Javad Mahmoudi, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Fereshteh Farajdokht, Saeed Sadigh-Eteghad, Siamak Sandoghchian Shotorbani, Huaxi Xu, Delaram Eslimi Esfahani
Sericin (Ser) is a natural neuroactive macromolecule with diverse pharmacological properties, and our previous findings have shown its neuroprotective potentials. This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of Ser on cognitive dysfunction induced by transient global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (tGI/R) and its mechanism of action. The tGI/R was induced in BALB/c mice by bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries for two 5 min followed by a 10-min reperfusion period. After 24 h, mice were treated with normal saline or different doses of Ser (100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) for 10 days. Cognitive performances were assessed using the Barnes maze and social interaction tasks. Oxidative stress markers including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) were assessed in the hippocampus. Markers of apoptosis (pro- and cleaved caspase-9 and 3, Bax, and Bcl-2) were assessed by Western blotting. Besides, transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay was used to detect apoptotic cell death. We show here that Ser administration improved tGI/R-induced cognitive deficits, enhanced the activity of SOD and GPx, increased TAC levels, while reduced MDA levels. Notably, Ser decreased neuronal apoptotic cell death in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region, accompanied by suppression of neuroinflammation, downregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins (caspase-9, caspases-3, and Bax), and upregulation of anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2. Taken together, Ser administration protected hippocampal neurons from apoptotic cell death by impeding oxidative stress and inflammatory responses and, in turn, improved cognitive function in the tGI/R mice.
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Investigation of the regulatory mechanism of lijie capsules on gut microbiota in rheumatoid arthritis p. 220
Yanqiang Chen, Shaobin Qiu, Fei Qiu, Guoyuan Li, Lixian Gan, Binghui Huang, Lingmei Yang
Lijie Capsules (LJJN) are a classical Chinese herbal formula adopted to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) clinically, yet the regulatory mechanism underlying the protection of LJJN against RA has not been fully elucidated. Here, the animal model of RA was established by complete Freund's adjuvant administration in mice. About 60 mg/ml of LJJN was used for treatment. The histological change of ankle joint was measured by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The inflammatory cytokines were detected using ELISA kits. The protein associated with inflammation and GLUD2 was detected using Western blot. The mice feces were analyzed by 16S rRNA sequencing. The levels of glutamate (Glu) and α-ketoglutarate (α-KG) were detected using their detection kits. In addition, fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLSs) were stimulated by Glu to induce an injured synoviocytes model in vitro, with or without LJJN treatment for 48 h. It was demonstrated that LJJN alleviated ankle joint swelling and synovial injury in RA mice. Meanwhile, LJJN inactivated nuclear factor kappa B signaling and suppressed inflammation of RA mice. The disordered gut microbiota composition in RA mice was partly restored by LJJN. Bacteroides-mediated Glu metabolism was impacted in RA mice, and LJJN contributed to the conversion of Glu to α-KG in RA mice. In addition, the in vitro results revealed that LJJN could block Glu-induced inflammation in FLSs but had no direct influence on α-KG and GLUD2 levels. In summary, LJJN exerted a protective role against ankle joint injury and inflammation in RA, which might be partly associated with gut microbiota-mediated Glu metabolism.
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Ring-finger protein 5 attenuates oxygen-glucose deprivation and reperfusion-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation in cardiomyocytes by inhibiting the S100A8/MYD88/NF-κB axis p. 228
Xuesi Chen, Yingjie Wu, Yingchun Bao
Mitochondrial dysfunction is closely intertwined with the progression of heart failure (HF). Ring-finger protein 5 (RNF5) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, whose deletion induces the enhanced S100A8 expression. S100A8 regulates the mitochondrial dysfunction and S100A8/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MYD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway promotes an inflammatory response; however, whether RNF5 modulated mitochondrial dysregulation and inflammation through the S100A8/MYD88/NF-κB axis remains unknown. Here, H9c2 cells were stimulated with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) to build a HF model in vitro. RNF5 level was assessed in gene expression omnibus database and in OGD/R-induced H9c2 cells with reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot. The RNF5 level was overexpressed via transfecting RNF5 overexpression plasmids into H9c2 cells. The role and mechanism of RNF5 in OGD/R-elicited H9c2 cells were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, spectrophotometry, flow cytometry, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) measurement, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot assays. The RNF5 expression was downregulated both in silico and in OGD/R-stimulated H9c2 cells. OGD/R treatment caused a decrease in the cell viability, the MMP level, and the translational expression of mito-cyt-c and NF-κB-cyto, and an elevation in the concentrations of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase myocardial band, the apoptosis rate, the inflammatory factor release, and the relative protein expression of cyto-cyt-c, S100A8, MYD88 and NF-κB-nuc in H9c2 cells. Upregulation of RNF5 reversed these indicators in OGD/R-stimulated H9c2 cells. Altogether, based on these outcomes, we concluded that RNF5 impeded mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation through attenuating the S100A8/MYD88/NF-κB axis in OGD/R-stimulated H9c2 cells.
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Pachymic acid protects hepatic cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion injury by activating sirtuin 1 to inhibit HMGB1 acetylation and inflammatory signaling p. 239
Chengbiao Xue, Zhigao Xu, Zhongzhong Liu, Cheng Zeng, Qifa Ye
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is an important cause of liver injury occurring during liver transplantation. It is usually caused by inflammatory response and oxidative stress-induced oxidative damage. Pachymic acid (PA) has various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-cancer. However, the action mechanism of PA in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury is currently unknown. In this study, liver cells were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R) to simulate a hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury model. The binding relationship between PA and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) was analyzed by molecular docking. Cell viability was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8. Expression levels of SIRT1 and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) were detected by western blot. Subsequent levels of inflammatory factors were detected by related kits and western blot. Meanwhile, related kits were used to examine levels of oxidative stress markers including reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and cytotoxicity-associated lactate dehydrogenase. Finally, cell apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry and western blot. The results showed that PA significantly ameliorated OGD/R-induced decrease in SIRT1 expression, increase in HMGB1 acetylation and HMGB1 translocation. Moreover, the elevated levels of inflammatory factors, oxidative stress indexes and cell apoptosis upon exposure to OGD/R were reversed by PA treatment. Moreover, the addition of SIRT1 agonist and inhibitor further demonstrated that PA exerted the aforementioned effects in OGD/R-exposed cells by targeting SIRT1. Thus, the present study revealed the mechanism by which PA ameliorated OGD/R-induced hepatic injury via SIRT1. These results might provide a clearer theoretical basis for the targeted treatment of OGD/R-induced hepatic injury with PA.
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Paeonol represses A549 cell glycolytic reprogramming and proliferation by decreasing m6A modification of Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase p. 248
Lixin Zhang, Lihua Wu, Xiangrui Zhu, Jian Mei, Yingli Chen
Aberrant glycolytic reprogramming is involved in lung cancer progression by promoting the proliferation of non-small cell lung cancer cells. Paeonol, as a traditional Chinese medicine, plays a critical role in multiple cancer cell proliferation and inflammation. Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADM) is involved in the development of metabolic diseases. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) modification is important for the regulation of messenger RNA stability, splicing, and translation. Here, we investigated whether paeonol regulates the proliferation and glycolytic reprogramming via ACADM with m6A modification in A549 cells (human non-small cell lung cancer cells). Cell counting kit 8, 5-Bromo-2-deoxyuridine, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, flow cytometry analysis, western blotting and seahorse XFe24 extracellular flux analyzer assays showed that paeonol had a significant inhibitory effect against A549 cell proliferation and glycolysis. Mechanistically, ACADM was a functional target of paeonol. We also showed that the m6A reader YTH domain containing 1 plays an important role in m6A-modified ACADM expression, which is negatively regulated by paeonol, and is involved in A549 cell proliferation and glycolytic reprogramming. These results indicated the central function of paeonol in regulating A549 cell glycolytic reprogramming and proliferation via m6A modification of ACADM.
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Stomatin-like protein-2 contributes the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells via regulating ERK/FOXO3a signaling pathway p. 257
Shengming Wu, Lingang Zhao, Qian Li
Breast cancer (BC) is the most common tumor in women, and its incidence is increasing, ranking first among female malignant tumors. It is urgently needed to find new and reliable biomarkers of BC and to understand the cellular changes that cause metastasis. Stomatin-like protein-2 (SLP-2) is a member of the stomatin protein superfamily. Studies have shown that SLP-2 was highly expressed in some tumors and played an important role in tumor genesis and development. SLP-2 regulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, and activation of ERK phosphorylated FOXO3a, which was involved in BC progression. However, its possible role in the progression of BC remains unclear. In this study, we found the high expression of SLP-2 in BC tissues and cells. SLP-2 promoted the viability of BC cells. In addition, we found that SLP-2 stimulated the motility of BC cells in vitro. Mechanically, our results revealed that SLP-2 could mediate FOXO3a expression and ERK signaling pathway, thereby contributing to the viability and motility of BC cells. Therefore, SLP-2 has the potential to serve as a promising target for BC treatment.
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E2F8 knockdown suppresses cell proliferation and induces cell cycle arrest via Wnt/β-Catenin pathway in ovarian cancer p. 266
Meiyin Zhang, Ye Xu, Yongjian Zhang, Ge Lou
Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of death in female reproductive system cancers. However, the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer remains elusive. Our aim is to investigate the potential targets for ovarian cancer. Two microarray datasets were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus public database. Using R package limma, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified from the datasets. There were 95 overlapping DEGs in two microarray datasets. GO, KEGG pathway analysis, and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis were carried out based on the DEGs. Wnt signaling pathway and cell cycle were enriched in the KEGG pathway analysis. Moreover, the top 10 hub genes with the most nodes were determined by PPI network analysis. E2F8, one of hub genes was positively linked to a bad outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Furthermore, E2F8 knockdown suppressed cell proliferation and induced cell cycle arrest in ovarian cancer. In addition, we found that silencing E2F8 inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In ovarian cancer cells with E2F8 knockdown, overexpressing β-catenin restored both the suppressed capacity of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Therefore, our results revealed that E2F8 had an involvement in the development of ovarian cancer which might act as a therapeutic target.
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Knockdown of neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma-associated antigen homolog inhibits acute myeloid leukemia cell growth via the ERK pathway p. 276
Hongxia Zhang, Guangsheng Wu, Beili Chen
Neurotrophin receptor-interacting melanoma-associated antigen homolog (NRAGE), a type II melanoma-associated antigen, plays a critical role in cell processes that are involved in the tumorigenesis of various cancers. However, the effect of NRAGE on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rarely reported. The expression of NRAGE in AML tissues and the survival rates between different AML groups were obtained from the GEPIA tool. Human AML cell lines were cultured and transfected with siRNA targeting NRAGE. The ability of AML cells to proliferate and cell cycle were examined. Western blotting was performed to detect the activity of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in AML cells. NRAGE expression was enhanced in AML tissues relative to control tissues, and the high NRAGE expression in AML patients is associated with a poor prognosis. The capacity of AML cells to survive and proliferate was significantly decreased and its cell cycle was arrested at the G1 phase after NRAGE was silenced. Furthermore, silencing NRAGE induced the inactivation of the ERK signaling pathway. Furthermore, supplement of tert-Butylhydroquinone, an ERK activator, improved the reduced ability of AML cell survival and proliferation as well as cell cycle arrest induced by NRAGE knockdown. In this study, NRAGE was identified as a tumor promoter in AML, which had an effect on cell proliferation, cell survival, and cell cycle through the ERK signaling pathway in AML cells.
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Genkwanin suppresses mitochondrial dysfunction to alleviate IL-1β-elicited inflammation, apoptosis, and degradation of extracellular matrix in chondrocytes through upregulating DUSP1 p. 284
Kanna Xu, Haoran Wang, Zhongqing Wu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a form of chronic degenerative disease contributing to elevated disability rate among the elderly. Genkwanin is an active component extracted from Daphne genkwa possessing pharmacologic effects. Here, this study is designed to expound the specific role of genkwanin in OA and elaborate the probable downstream mechanism. First, the viability of chondrocytes in the presence or absence of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) treatment was detected by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay was used to assess cell apoptosis. Inflammatory response was estimated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. In addition, immunofluorescence staining and Western blot were utilized to measure the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-associated proteins. Dual-specificity protein phosphatase-1 (DUSP1) expression was tested by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot. Following DUSP1 elevation in genkwanin-treated chondrocytes exposed to IL-1β, inflammatory response and ECM-associated factors were evaluated as forementioned. In addition, 5,5′,6,6′-tetrachloro-1,1′,3,3′-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide staining was to assess the mitochondrial membrane potential. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level was examined with ATP assay kit, and RT-qPCR was used to test mitochondrial DNA expression. Results indicated that genkwanin administration enhanced the viability while ameliorated the apoptosis, inflammatory response, and ECM degradation in IL-1β-induced chondrocytes. Besides, genkwanin treatment fortified DUSP1 expression in IL-1β-exposed chondrocytes. DUSP1 interference further offsets the impacts of genkwanin on the inflammation, ECM degradation, and mitochondrial dysfunction in IL-1β-challenged chondrocytes. In short, genkwanin enhanced DUSP1 expression to mitigate mitochondrial dysfunction, thus ameliorating IL-1β-elicited inflammation, apoptosis, and degradation of ECM in chondrocytes.
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