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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 3  |  Page : 125-135

Insulin sensitizer and antihyperlipidemic effects of Cajanus cajan (L.) millsp. root in methylglyoxal-induced diabetic rats

1 Department of Beauty Science and Graduate Institute of Beauty Science Technology, Chienkuo Technology University, Changhua, Taiwan
2 Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, Da-Yeh University, Changhua, Taiwan
3 Graduate Institute of Veterinary Pathobiology, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
4 Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Yuanlin Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan
5 Taitung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station, Council of Agriculture, Taitung, Taiwan
6 Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Tuzz-Ying Song
No. 168, University Rd., Dacun, Changhua 515006
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjp.cjp_88_21

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Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp., known as pigeon pea, is one of the major grain legume crops of the tropical world. It recognizes as an ethnomedicine to possess various functions, such as helping in healing wound and cancer therapy. We investigated whether 95% ethanol extracts from C. cajan root (EECR) protect against methylglyoxal (MGO)-induced insulin resistance (IR) and hyperlipidemia in male Wistar rats and explored its possible mechanisms. The hypoglycemic potential of EECR was evaluated using α-amylase, α-glucosidase activities, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) formation. For in vivo study, the rats were divided into six groups and orally supplemented with MGO except for Group 1 (controls). Group 2 was supplemented with MGO only, Group 3: MGO + metformin, Group 4: MGO + Low dose-EECR (L-EECR; 10 mg/kg bw), Group 5: MGO + Middle dose-EECR (M-EECR; 50 mg/kg bw), and Group 6: MGO + High dose-EECR (H-EECR; 100 mg/kg bw). EECR possessed good inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase activities, and AGEs formation (IC50 = 0.12, 0.32, and 0.50 mg/mL), respectively. MGO significantly increased serum levels of blood glucose (GLU), glycosylated hemoglobin, homeostasis model assessment of IR, AGEs, lipid biochemical values, and atherogenic index, whereas EECR decreased these levels in a dose-dependent manner. EECR can also act as an insulin sensitizer, which significantly decreased (47%, P < 0.05) the blood GLU levels after intraperitoneal injection of insulin in the insulin tolerance tests. The hypoglycemic and antihyperlipidemic mechanisms of EECR are likely through several possible pathways including the inhibition of carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzymes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and the enhancement of MGO-trapping effects on inhibition of AGEs formation.

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