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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 65  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 80-86

Raspberry ketone promotes FNDC5 protein expression via HO-1 upregulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

1 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, Tainan; Department of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei; Department of Sport Management, Chia Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan, Taiwan
2 Department of Physiology and Biophysics, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
3 Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Pao-Yun Cheng
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Graduate Institute of Physiology, National Defense Medical Center, No. 161, Sec 6, Minquan East Road, Taipei
Dr. Yung-Chieh Tsai
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chi-Mei Medical Center, No.901, Zhonghua Rd. Yongkang Dist., Tainan 71004;
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjp.cjp_95_21

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Obesity is a global health problem and a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and cancers. Exercise is an effective intervention to combat obesity. Fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5 (FNDC5)/irisin, a myokine, can stimulate the browning of white adipose tissue by increasing uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) expression, and therefore may represent a link between the beneficial effects of exercise and improvement in metabolic diseases. Thus, upregulating the endogenous expression of FNDC5/irisin by administering medication would be a good approach for treating obesity. Herein, we evaluated the efficacy of raspberry ketone (RK) in inducing FNDC5/irisin expression and the underlying mechanisms. The expression of brown fat-specific proteins (PR domain containing 16 (PRDM16), CD137, and UCP1), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), FNDC5, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α) in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte was analyzed by western blotting or immunofluorescence. The level of irisin in the culture medium was also assayed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results showed that RK (50 μM) significantly induced the upregulation of FNDC5 protein in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes; however, the irisin level in the culture media was unaffected. Moreover, RK significantly increased the levels of PGC1α, brown adipocyte markers (PRDM16, CD137, and UCP1), and HO-1. Furthermore, the upregulation of PGC1α and FNDC5 and the browning effect induced by RK were significantly reduced by SnPP or FNDC5 siRNA, respectively. In conclusion, RK can induce FNDC5 protein expression via the HO-1 signaling pathway, and this study provides new evidence for the potential use of RK in the treatment of obesity.

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