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REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 6  |  Page : 257-265

Hidradenitis suppurativa: Disease pathophysiology and sex hormones


1 Department of Dermatology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
2 Department of Dermatology, National Cheng Kung University Hospital, College of Medicine; International Center for Wound Repair and Regeneration, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan
3 Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Shaw-Jenq Tsai
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101; Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101
Taiwan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/cjp.cjp_67_21

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Hidradenitis suppurativa is a cutaneous chronic inflammatory disease that is estimated to affect about 1% of the population and caused pain, malodorous discharge, disfigurement, and poor quality of life with psychosocial problems. The typical features are recurrent painful nodules, abscesses, and sinus tracts on the axillae, groins, gluteal areas, and anogenital regions since postpuberty. Smoking and obesity are two major triggering factors of hidradenitis suppurativa. Women are prone to have hidradenitis suppurativa than men in Western countries, but the male-to-female ratio is reversed in oriental countries. The disease severity can be affected by menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause. Furthermore, the phenotypes are different among men and women with hidradenitis suppurativa. Men are prone to have buttock involvement while women are prone to have axillary, groins, and submammary lesions. This review introduces the skin appendages and pathophysiology of hidradenitis suppurativa and then focuses on the sex difference and the effects of sex hormones on hidradenitis suppurativa and current hormone-associated treatments.


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