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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 5  |  Page : 232-243

Inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediator expression in macrophages using wood vinegar from griffith's ash

1 Division of Wood Cellulose, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, Taipei, Taiwan
2 Animal Technology Research Center, Agricultural Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu, Taiwan
3 Department of Laboratory Medicine, Linsen, Chinese Medicine and Kunming Branch, Taipei City Hospital; Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan
4 Department of Biotechnology and Animal Science, National Ilan University, Yilan; Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan
5 Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Tz-Chuen Ju
Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Tunghai University, No. 1727, Sec. 4, Taiwan Blvd., Xitun Dist, Taichung City 40704
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjp.cjp_54_21

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Macrophages are essential for host defense as they control foreign pathogens and induce acquired immune responses. Activated macrophages secrete pro-inflammatory reactive substances causing local cell and tissue inflammatory response, which helps an organism resist the invasion of foreign pathogens. Excessive or chronic inflammation can cause several diseases. Previous studies have reported that vinegar treatment decreases the levels of several inflammatory cytokines and biomarkers, including mitogen-activated protein kinases, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and nitric oxide (NO). However, the benefits of wood vinegar produced from Griffith's ash (Fraxinus formosana Hayata) in reducing inflammation have not been investigated yet. Thus, assuming that wood vinegar exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages, in this study, we investigated the potential anti-inflammatory effects of the wood vinegar from Griffith's ash using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response model in RAW264.7 macrophages. We showed that the wood vinegar inhibited the production of iNOS, NO, and interleukin 6. In addition, we found that the wood vinegar reduced the phosphorylation levels of p38 and protein kinase C-α/δ in the LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages. Based on these results, we suggest that the produced wood vinegar can reduce inflammation in LPS-activated macrophages.

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