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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 64  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 194-201

Adropin and spexin hormones regulate the systemic inflammation in adenine-induced chronic kidney failure in rat

1 Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Adıyaman University, Adıyaman, Turkey
2 Department of Medical Services and Techniques, Sabuncuoglu Serefeddin Health Services Vocational School; Department of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Health Sciences, Amasya University, Amasya, Turkey

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Gulsun Memi
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Adiyaman University, 02040, Adiyaman
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/cjp.cjp_13_21

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Chronic kidney disease is one of the major global health problems. Chronic renal failure is stimulated by many cytokines and chemokines. Adropin and spexin (SPX) are peptides hormones. These peptides could affect inflammatory conditions, but this is unclear. Due to the limited information, we planned to investigate the impact of adropin and SPX hormones on systemic inflammation in adenine induced chronic kidney failure rat model. Chronic kidney failure was induced by administering adenine hemisulfate. Renal functions were measured by an autoanalyzer. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17A, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Eotaxin, growth-regulated oncogene-alpha, IP-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, MCP-3, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-2, and RANTES levels were determined by Luminex. We observed an increase in 24-h urine volume and serum creatinine. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and urine protein levels were also significantly higher in the chronic kidney failure (CKF) group. Urine protein and 24-h urine volume were reduced with adropin and SPX treatments. Furthermore, G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17A, and GRO-α significantly increased by CKF induction; however, these cytokines and chemokines significantly decreased by adropin treatment in the CKF group. Furthermore, adropin increased IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-2 levels. In addition, SPX treatment had a more limited effect, decreasing only G-CSF, IFN-γ, and IL-5 levels. The combined adropin + SPX treatment significantly reduced G-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-12, and IL-17A. Furthermore, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, and MIP-2 were significantly increased by these combined treatments. Our findings indicate that renal functions and inflammatory response were modulated by adropin and SPX peptides. These peptides may have protective effects on systemic inflammation and renal failure progression.

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